Translated by Mahmood Alimohammadi

Avicenna (b.980, Afshanaheh, Bukhara, Iran—d. 1037, Hamadan) is a Persian physician and the most famous and influential philosopher-scientist of the Islamic world.He distinguished himself in the field of science by Kitab ash-shafa(Book of Healing), a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and the Canon of Medicine, which is the most famous single book in the history of medicine in both East and West.

Muhammad ibn Zakariyya Razi

Translated by Mahmood Alimohammadi

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya Razi is an Iranian physician, philosopher and chemist. He has created enduring contributions to various fields including medicine, chemistry, and philosophy.  He is well known for his discovery of alcohol and sulfuric acid. He combined alcorous water and ammonium chloride to produce chloridric acid. He also combined vinegar with copper to make copper acetate (verdigris) to clean the wounds of his patients with it. He burned orpiment to synthesize arsenic oxide.  For the first time he produced citric acid from the sour orange. He was the first physician to make toxic alkaloid drugs.

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